1: Altern Ther Health Med. 1999 Jan;5(1):56-62.
Use of complementary healthcare practices among chiropractors in the
States: a survey.
Hawk C, Byrd L, Jansen RD, Long CR.
Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research, Palmer College of Chiropractic,
Davenport, Iowa, Davenport 52803, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
CONTEXT: Although chiropractic is the most commonly used complementary
healthcare practice, chiropractors have not been surveyed in depth about
attitudes toward and practice of complementary and alternative therapies
from spinal manipulation. OBJECTIVES: To examine attitudes among US
chiropractors on the role of their profession in complementary healthcare
gather data on the types of complementary healthcare practices
use. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study using a mail-in survey.
United States. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of US chiropractors stratified
code region. RESULTS: A total of 563 surveys were completed, for a
of 30%. Respondents were almost equally divided on their responses to the
question "Do you feel that chiropractic should at the present time be
'complementary'?" Although many respondents (68%) believed that
viewed as a therapeutic modality, more (82%) believed that it should be
as a complete system. The therapies most commonly used by respondents in
practice were acupressure (72%), massage (72%), mineral supplements (63%),
herbs (56%). CONCLUSION: The disparity between the established view of
chiropractic as synonymous with spinal manipulation and the profession's
chiropractic as a complete system indicates a need for better
PMID: 9893316 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2: J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1998 Jul-Aug;21(6):429-32; author reply
J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1997 Nov-Dec;20(9):602-6.
The effects of spinal manipulation on the intensity of emotional arousal
phobic subjects exposed to threat stimulus: a randomized, controlled,
double-blind clinical trial.
PMID: 9726076 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
3: J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1998 Jan;21(1):19-26.
Measurement of soft tissue strain in response to consecutively increased
compressive and distractive loads on a friction-based test bed.
Jansen RD, Cooperstein R.
Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research, Palmer College of Chiropractic
San Jose, CA 95134, USA.
PURPOSE: To abstract the essential elements of chiropractic prone leg
and subject them to controlled, experimental parametric testing. DESIGN:
Controlled, objective, repeated-measure analysis of the dynamic response
positions to distractive and compressive loading conditions. SETTING:
laboratory in a chiropractic college. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five
30 distraction subjects, most of whom were male, asymptomatic chiropractic
students. INTERVENTION: The subjects were lowered to the prone position on
table optimized to detect dynamic leg positions, with separate sliding
supporting each leg. A trial consisted of a 2-min control run, followed by
2-min experimental runs in which compressive or distractive loads were
incrementally to the table-leg segments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: An
system measured real-time absolute and relative leg positions. RESULTS:
legs showed a greater average response than left legs under both
compressive loads, and tended to respond more proportionately to
load increases. The average response to compression exceeded the response
distraction. Both legs showed a greater average response in the second
the trials. Correlation of weights with responses was about four times
in traction than compression. CONCLUSION: The functional short leg is
as a stable clinical reality, a multitrial mean of unloaded leg positional
differences. The prone leg check may be a loading procedure, albeit
that detects non-weight-bearing, functional asymmetry in loading
These probably reflect differences in left-right muscle tone, joint
and tissue stiffness. The relatively nonmonotonic, nonlinear quality of
responses is consistent with asymmetric neurological responses.
PMID: 9467097 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
4: J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1990 Sep;13(7):370-7.
Analysis of dynamic standing foot force patterns in a normal male subject
characterization of microvector weight transfer sequences.
Nansel DD, Jansen RD, Szlazak MJ.
Research Department, Palmer College Chiropractic-West, Sunnyvale, CA
Previous foot forceplate analyses in our laboratory have shown that
sway in a normal male subject induces net weight transfers (microvectors)
have preferred directionalities, and that eye closure is characterized by
increases in both the occurrence and magnitudes of these preferred
The same data generated from 8 x 8 blocks of eyes-open and eyes-closed
were reanalyzed to examine microvector temporal sequences (i.e.,
Macrovectors were defined by the number of successive microvectors
along the same general direction, (anterior, posterior, right or left).
suggest that with eye-closure, proprioceptive systems are unable to
lateral sway deviations within eyes-open limits. This instability
lateral macrovector durations while only marginally affecting sagittal
PMID: 2212882 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
5: J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1990 Sep;13(7):361-9.
Power spectral and microvector frequency analysis of dynamic standing foot
patterns in a normal male subject.
Jansen RD, Nansel DD, Szlazak MJ.
Research Department, Palmer College Chiropractic-West, Sunnyvale, CA
Power spectral and microvector frequency analyses of dynamic standing foot
patterns in a normal male subject were performed using a multiple-trial
experimental protocol. Power spectral analysis of eight eyes-open vs.
eyes-closed 50-sec trials revealed significant power increases in the 0.14
0.66 Hz range with eye closure, which were repeatable in trials performed
same subject 2 wk later. Since power spectral differences are difficult to
interpret biomechanically, a (micro)vector analysis of 1/20 sec changes in
proportional weight transfer was employed. This methodology was able to
that foot force weight transfer exhibited a distinct preferred
and that the eyes-closed condition was characterized by significant
both the occurrence and average magnitudes of these preferred microvectors.
PMID: 2212881 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
6: J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1990 Jun;13(5):243-6.
Normal paraspinal tissue compliance: the reliability of a new clinical and
Jansen RD, Nansel DD, Slosberg M.
Research Department, Palmer College of Chiropractic-West, Sunnyvale, CA
Test-retest reliability of a hand-held tissue compliance meter was
20 normal subjects at four paraspinal locations to determine possible
probe response or other sources of variability on measurements taken 10
later at exactly the same location. If tissue compliance, as measured by
instrument, is to be used in a pre-post context to evaluate treatment
caution is urged, since 26% of the sites were significantly (+/- 1.96 SD)
different on 10 min retest though subjects remained supine and without
intervention. In addition, since 85% of these normal subjects displayed at
one paraspinal compliance asymmetry large enough to qualify as
Fischer's criteria, revision of these criteria may be appropriate, at
these paraspinal locations.
PMID: 2376718 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7: J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1989 Dec;12(6):428-33.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1990 Jul-Aug;13(6):346-8.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1991 Jan;14(1):85-90.
Interexaminer concordance in detecting joint-play asymmetries in the
spines of otherwise asymptomatic subjects.
Nansel DD, Peneff AL, Jansen RD, Cooperstein R.
Department of Physiology/Pathology, Palmer College of Chiropractic-West,
Sunnyvale, CA 94087.
Interexaminer concordance for motion-based palpation of the middle and
cervical spine was investigated. The palpatory task consisted of
whether end-range joint resistance on lateral flexion was greater on one
a given cervical segment when compared to that of the contralateral joint.
Palpators also were asked to indicate the relative magnitude of the
when detected. All experiments were carried out using reasonably healthy,
pain-free, chiropractic college students. Three series of experiments
two pairs of practitioners and a total of 270 subjects were carried out.
Interexaminer agreement rates with respect to the side of greatest
not found to be significantly different from those expected by chance
Furthermore, this was the case regardless of whether palpators had rated
magnitude of the asymmetry as being slight, moderate or severe. These poor
agreement rates did not appear to be due to significant interexaminer
differences with respect to the distributions of right vs. left calls, to
preponderance of agreements occurring more on one side over the other, or
differences with respect to the distribution of severity ratings. More
importantly, there appeared to be no consistent relationships between the
of severity indicated by the first examiner and that indicated by the
nor were there any significant correlations between right vs. left
rates obtained for various combinations of severity ratings.(ABSTRACT
AT 250 WORDS)
PMID: 2628521 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
8: J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1988 Oct;11(5):355-65.
Diagnostic illusions: the reliability of random chance.
Jansen RD, Nansel DD.
Life Chiropractic College-West, San Lorenzo, CA 94580.
A "Monte Carlo" experiment was performed in order to determine chance
concordance rates for multiple test scenarios often encountered in
diagnosis. The Monte Carlo simulation took into account the following
the number of tests involved in the diagnosis; the number of vertebral
implicated by each test; the proportion of tests in agreement relative to
number of tests performed; and the segmental margin of error accepted.
data for up to five diagnostic tests performed on 500 "patients" were
generated and a wide variety of test scenarios analyzed. One typical
asked: if four diagnostic tests are performed on each patient, each test
implicating on average three vertebral segments, and a plus or minus one
error margin is accepted, what are the chance odds that any three out of
four tests will implicate the same vertebral segment? The answer,
simply counting how often this happened in the 500 "patients," was 89%.
test scenarios yielded chance levels much higher than might have been
High probability situations as well as those test criteria yielding
low chance concordance rates are identified.
PMID: 3235923 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
9: J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1988 Aug;11(4):267-72.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1989 Oct;12(5):402-4.
Concordance between galvanic skin response and spinal palpation findings
Nansel DD, Jansen RD.
Life Chiropractic College-West, San Lorenzo, CA 94580.
The concordance between areas of paraspinal low resistance, i.e., galvanic
response (GSR) and positive palpatory findings in pain-free male subjects
investigated. The concordance between vertebral segments implicated by GSR
by palpation was not found to be significantly different from chance
as determined by a t-test comparison of experimental results to randomly
generated simulations, and by the application of Cohen's Kappa index of
concordance to experimental data. This was true even when the locations of
resistance areas along the dorsal trunk were compared to only those
palpatory findings rated as "severe." When test-retest reliability of GSR
examined, only 27% of vertebral segments implicated by GSR on initial
examination were also implicated in the same subjects 4 h later. It was
that low resistance areas detected by GSR were always punctate in nature
appeared to correspond well to known acupuncture loci. Further
revealed that, indeed, the GSR unit was not only effective in locating
acupuncture points that happened to be in a state of lowered resistance at
time but was also able, within about 5 sec, to decrease the resistance of
particular point not already in its lowest state of resistance to a level
sufficient to generate a positive and persistent GSR reading where none
detected previously. It is suggested that GSR may not be a reliable
the location of vertebral pathology, at least as assessed by palpation in
pain-free subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMID: 3171414 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
10: Perception. 1982;11(5):535-40.
Attentional alterations of slant-specific interference between line
Jansen RD, Blum GS, Loomis JM.
Slant-specific interference between line segments in eccentric vision was
altered by attentional methods in hypnotically susceptible observers.
methods included negative and positive posthypnotic hallucination of the
inducing elements of the array, and nonhypnotic instruction to actively
the elements. Contributions to the experimental effects apparently derived
part from intrinsic inhibitory or facilitatory skill in the individual
sharpened by hypnotic training in hallucinations. Control observers with
with high hypnotic susceptibility were not able to alter significantly the
interference effect when attempting to simulate the hallucination
The results seemingly link these attentional alterations to an early
stage of visual processing.
PMID: 7186108 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]